Mental Retardation Types in Children
Types of mental retardation-Mental retardation can be defined as an IQ of approximately 70 or below. Co-existing disadvantages or impairments to adaptive function in two areas such as home living, self-care, communication, social/interpersonal skills, self-direction, the use of community resources, functional academic skills, leisure, work, health, and safety and before age 18.
What’s Mental Retardation?
Mental retardation can be diagnosed through the use of standardized tests; of intelligence, and adaptive behavior. Mental retardation refers to certain limitations in mental function; and in skills such as daily self care (dressing, eating), communicating, and social skills. These limitations can cause the children slowly developing than a typical child. Mentally retarded need extra help in managing the challenges of school.
Mental retardation is not including a disease. It is one of type of mental illnesses like depression. There is no special cure for mental retardation. However, most children who with mental retardation can do many things. They just need more time and effort than other
children. Every child who with mental retardation have ability to develop, learn, and grow. With help; all children who with mental retardation can live a satisfying life like the other people.
Signs of Mental Retardation in Children
There are many possible ways to recognize mental retardation such as:
- Got difficulties to remember things
- Not enough understanding to pay things
- They have delayed developing in speaking, crawling, sitting up, talking etc
- They are unable to understand social rules, solving problems, knowing the consequence of what they do, or logical thinking.
Knowing the Mental Retardation Types
There are many degrees of mental retardation. Three common classifications including:
- Mildly (Educable): Mental Age 8-12. Learn to approximately 6th grade level.
- Moderately (Trainable): Mental Age 5-8. They cannot learn academic subjects in school.
- Severely/Profoundly: Many require life long care; supervision and are often institutions.
Mental Retardation causes
The causes of Mental retardation are not all known. However, more than 200 have been identified, and many others are suspected. But, the known causes can be categorized into five categories:
- Genetic Irregularities: for example genes inherited from parents, x-ray exposure, incompatibility Rh blood factor, recessive genetic traits, or error in metabolism. The Examples of which caused caused mental retardation genetically are phenylketonuria (PKU), fragile X syndrome, and down
- Pregnancy Complications: German measles, poor nutrition, infections, tumors, glandular disorders, radiation or exposure to toxic agents. Mental retardation can cause something goes abnormally with the baby’s development in the womb. There may be a problem; with the way the baby’s cells dividing as it grows. Exposure to rubella or alcohol when their moms got pregnant.
- Birth Problems: too rapid birth, premature birth, prolonged birth, or any circumstance which reduces the oxygen supply to the infant’s E
- Early Childhood Problems: for example childhood diseases especially in the very babies such as measles, chicken pox, whooping cough, meningitis, severe injuries to the brain, high fevers, lack of certain chemicals in the blood or glandular imbalance. Some causes which can cause mental retardation are malnutrition, extreme medical care, or exposure to toxic such as lead and mercury.
- Environmental Factors: for example being born; and raised in a deprived environment where there is little opportunity to learn or serious emotional problems.
How to Diagnose Mental Retardation?
In diagnosing mental retardation; professionals can look at the person’s mental abilities (IQ), and their adaptive skills, they are:
- A child’s IQ or intellectual functioning. The innate ability of their brain to think, learn, solve problems; and make sense of
the world. Intellectual functioning (IQ) can be measured by a test which is called an IQ test. The average score os people is 100. When people’s scoring below from 70 to 75 can br classified to be mentally retarded.
- The adaptive behavior of children whether they have the skills, they need to live independently. Key skills including their daily living skills, social interaction and communication skills. To measure adaptive behavior; the professionals can compare their ability with the other children. What should they do in her age comparing with the other children.
Mental Retardation Treatment
A child who with mental retardation can go to school but they need other people people or individual who can help them especially their family. Their family can work with school staff and preshcool in developing their plan such as:
- The school service relating to address their needs
- Children’s essential unique needs
- Family’s unique responsibilities
Many mentally children need help with adaptive skills that are daily living skills needed to work, interact and survive in the community. Teachers, and parents has responsibility to help a child work on these skills, both in school and home. These skills including:
- Taking care their personal needs such as bathing, dressing, and going to the bathroom.
- Safety and health
- Ability to communicate with others
- Home living such as cleaning house, helping to set the table, or cooking dinner.
- Social skills like manners, playing a game, knowing the rules of conversation, and getting along in a group.
- Writing, Reading, and basic math and
- When they get older, you can develop their skills which can help them in the workplace.
About 87% inadequate medical care of people who with mental retardation will be a little slower than average in learning new skills and information. When they are child, his/her limitations may not be obvious. The mental retardation cannot be diagnosed until they get to school even they are adulthood. Most people who with mild retardation can live independently. Other people may not conscious when they are having mental retardation.
The remaining 13% of people who with mental retardation score are below 50 on IQ tests. These people will have significant difficulty in the community, at home and in school. They need special support throughout their entire life.